In this article,we will discuss the benefits of exercise.
The exercise is a physical activity planned, structured and repetitive, performed to maintain or improve physical form using a set of body movements that are performed for this purpose.
Therefore, exercise is considered to be the set of musculature motor actions.
The exercise can be aimed at solving a specific engine problem.
Motor actions can be grouped by the need to develop some physical quality such as strength, speed, coordination, flexibility, and endurance.
The practice of exercise consumes energy and therefore requires the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues according to this exercise can be divided into several types.
The exercise is distinguished in: aerobic and anaerobic according to the type of muscular metabolism (of substrate) required for its accomplishment, in isometric or isotonic according to the characteristics of the contraction effort, and from a psycho-pedagogical approach, it is classified in endurance sport, Joint, coordination and competitive art, combat, strength and rapid strength.
Effects of exercise:
It operates changes in the person’s mind towards more positive directions regardless of any healing effect. An adequate exercise program strengthens the human psyche, producing moderate positive and sustained effects on certain depressive states, anxiety, stress, and psychological well-being
It increases the cerebral circulation, which makes the individual more awake and alert, and improves the thought processes.
It improves and strengthens the musculoskeletal system (bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons) contributing to an increase in the quality of life and degree of independence especially among older people
Prolongs the person’s socially useful time as well as improving his physical, cardio-vascular, bone and muscular capacity raises his productive levels, thus delaying the changes of old age.
It ensures a greater working capacity and helps to ensure the longevity by favoring the elimination of toxins and oxidants
Improves the physical appearance of the person
Some of the alterations or diseases in which physical exercise has been shown to be beneficial, especially as primary prevention are:
Different types of cancer, such as prostate cancer and colorectal cancer
Exercise and wellness:
The exercise attenuates the feeling of fatigue, low cholesterol levels and strengthens the ability of the blood to dissolve clots that can lead to thrombosis.
It is extremely effective in psychological disorders linked with depressive emotions.
It releases endorphins, morphine-like secretions, produced by the brain; which cushion pain in the body plane and facilitate feelings of pleasure and even euphoria.
People who have adopted gymnastics as a lifestyle generally sleep better have lower anxieties and tensions. They are practically immunized against stress.
The exercise regularly, rather than diets help in the treatment of overweight and obesity. In addition, in the control of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemias and cardiovascular diseases.
It is considered a factor of longevity that contributes to the quality of life in the old age.
Aerobic exercise is recommended for the cardio respiratory system.
For the reinforcement of joints and muscles, calisthenics is prescribed and, more advanced, for the increase of the force, the exercises with apparatuses and weights.
For good exercise, it is not recommended to do more than 20 minutes in the first few weeks. As the body takes physical exercise as a habit, you can add more exercise time.
Although physical exercise is considered a positive and healthy phenomenon, it is necessary to consider how much physical exercise is healthy for health and what exercise should be practiced.
A widely misconception about the practice of physical exercise , which sometimes seems implicit in the benefits that are proclaimed at the grassroots level about health, is that these positive effects are merely produced by their practice, Without explaining precisely what should be the contents, volume and intensity of said practice, according to the characteristics and circumstances of the individual, which are the factors that must be specified in a prescription.
In a simplistic way, there is the belief that the more physical exercise is performed the greater the health and body image benefits. Therefore, incorrect topics such as sport have been created.
For the preparation of the exercise program, the components of the exercise prescription must be taken into account.
Intensity; is the degree of demand of the training load. It is the most important variable and also the most difficult to determine, but the one that is most directly controlled by an exercise program and aims to obtain an effect of training without physiological alterations.
Duration; the duration of a session of exercise necessary to obtain and improve the aerobic condition, varies in inverse function with the intensity of the exercise.
In general, the duration of anaerobic exercise ranges from 15 to 60 minutes but can be modified within certain limits, depending on the functional capacity and general clinical condition of the individual.
Frequency: The threshold for improvement of aerobic capacity is achieved with a minimum recommended frequency for the normal adult subject of 3 sessions per week.
In obese and healthy adults with the poor functional capacity, it may be more practical to prescribe repeated 5-minute sessions, several times a day.
When the capacity improves, one or two somewhat longer daily sessions can be maintained.
You can then go on to three or more sessions per week.
It is essential not to allow more than 72 hours between session and session to avoid losing the benefits acquired by the exercise
Type of exercise; the types of activity that are recommended for aerobic training include any rhythmic exercise, which continually uses large muscle groups.
The structure of an exercise session; The physical exercise session consists of three parts:
Warm up is the first part of the training session.
It consists of exercises that allow to obtain an optimum state of psychophysical and motor preparation for the beginning of the session and to prevent possible injuries, especially muscular ones, performing joint mobility and stretching.
The main part of the session; this section constitutes the actual session. Its content is based on the following factors:
Age of patient.
Health status and level of conditioning (according to the functional assessment previously performed)
Objectives to be achieved
According to the established program
Cooling: This is the final part of the session, which aims at the cardiovascular recovery of the work performed and thus avoids cardiac complications and skeletal muscle pos exercise.
It should last 5-10 min,
With an intensity of less than 30% of maximum aerobic capacity.
Includes the following order of activities: walking, exercises stretching or slow rhythmic exercises.
The prescription of exercise is similar to that of medications; Exercise, although not taken, is practiced, therefore, just as a drug requires certain specifications and if this poorly dosed, it also produces undesirable side effects that are a health risk.
Before completing an exercise program, a thorough medical evaluation should be carried out in order to identify risk factors that may cause any complication due to exercise, as well as to measure the individual’s biometry abilities.
This program should take into account the preferences, needs, schedules, environmental conditions, equipment and facilities available among others.
The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommend a medical history questionnaire to detect or rule out subjects with mild, moderate, or severe risk for AF.
As well as determining individuals who can safely initiate AF without supervision, and identify those who require specialized care and supervision.
In the case of presenting underlying diseases, such as chronic-degenerative diseases, with or without complications, a thorough evaluation should be performed to select the exercise that does not involve any risk of worsening.
Contraindications to Exercise
Contraindications for physical exercise are two types; A) Absolute and b) relative
Acute myocardial infarction in the first 3 and 5 days.
Uncontrollable symptomatic arrhythmias.
Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis.
Uncontrollable symptomatic heart failure.
Embolism acute pulmonary infarction.
Acute pericarditis and myocarditis.
Thrombosis of lower extremities.
Severe arterial or pulmonary hypertension.
Mental alterations that prevent collaboration.
Moderate cardiac valvular stenosis.
Coronary left trunk stenosis.